Cardiovascular Biomechanics and Ultrasound Laboratory


National University of Singapore, Department of biomedical engineering



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Research Projects


Position Vacancy





1.       Li Z, Nguyen BL, Yap CH. “Hydrophobic Composite Materials, Methods And Uses Thereof.” Singapore Patent Application No. 10201806940R, filed 16 Aug 2018.

2.       Yap CH, Subramanian Shanmugasundaram P, Lee SY. “A Tri-Functional Portable Surface, With Passive-Warming, Pressure-Relieving And Fluid Adsorption Properties, To Provide Prolonged Physiological Warming In The Healthcare Setting.” Singapore Patent Application #10201706185S, filed 28 July 2017.

3.       Yap CH, Kim K. “Methods and Apparatus to Measure Constitutive Relations and Fiber Orientation of Soft Tissue.” PCT Patent Application #WO 2014/138423, filed 2014.

4.       Yap CH, Wei Q, Thiele K, Yoganathan AP. "Analysis of Mitral Regurgitation by Ultrasonic Imaging." US Patent Application 13/994,794, filed December 16, 2011

5.       Yap CH, Wei Q, Thiele, K, Yoganathan AP. "Automated Identification of the Location of a Regurgitant Orifice of a Mitral Valve in an Ultrasound Image." US Patent Application 13/990,247, filed December 16, 2011

6.       Yap CH, Wei Q, Thiele K, Yoganathan AP. "Analysis of Mitral Regurgitation from Slit Orifice by Ultrasonic Imaging." US Patent Application 13/991,551, filed December 15, 2011



1.       Vasudevan V, Low AJJ, Annamalai SP, Sampath S, Chin CL, Ali AAB, Yap CH. “Role of Diastolic Vortices in Flow and Energy Dynamics during Systolic Ejection.” J Biomech. [accepted April 2019]

2.       Ho S, Chan WX, Rajesh S, Phan-Thien N, Yap CH. “Fluid Dynamics and Forces in the HH25 Avian Embryonic Outflow Tract.” Biomech Model Mechanobiol. [Epub Feb 2019]


3.       Saw SN, Tay JJH, Poh YW, Yang L, Tan WC, Tan LK, Clark A, Biswas A, Mattar CNZ, Yap CH. “Altered Placental Chorionic Arterial Biomechanical Properties During Intrauterine Growth Restriction.” Scientific Reports. 2018 Nov 8;8(1):16526.

4.       Ang BT, Yap CH, Lee WS, Xue JM. “Bioinspired Dual-Tier Coalescence for Water Collection Efficiency Enhancement.” Langmuir. 2018 Oct 17;34(44):13409-15.

5.       Wiputra H, Chen CK, Talbi E, Lim GL, Soomar SM, Biswas A, Mattar CNZ, Bark D, Leo HL, Yap CH. “Human Fetal Hearts with Tetralogy of Fallot have Altered Fluid Dynamics and Forces.” Am J Physiol Heart and Circ Physiol. [epub Sep 2018]

6.       Li Z, Nguyen BL, Cheng YC, Xue JM, MacLaren G, Yap CH. “Durable, Flexible, Superhydrophobic and Blood-Repelling Surface for Use in Medical Blood Pumps.”  J. Mater. Chem. B. 2018;6(39):6225-33.

7.       Wang YX, Li Z, Qin L, Caddy G, Yap CH and Zhu J. “Dielectric Elastomer Fluid Pump of High Pressure and Large Volume Via Synergistic Snap-Through” J. Appl. Mech. 2018 Oct 1; 85(10):101003

8.       Saw SN, Poh YW, Chia DAK, Biswas A, Mattar CNZ, Yap CH. “Characterization of the Hemodynamic Wall Shear Stresses in Human Umbilical Vessels from Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pregnancies.” Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2018 Aug;17(4):1107-1117

9.       Ong CW, Yap CH, Kabinejadian F, Nguyen YN, Cui FS, Chua KJ, Ho P, Leo HL. “Association of hemodynamic behaviour to the intraluminal thrombus prediction: a two-way fluid structure coupling investigation.”  Int. J. Appl. Mechanics. 2018;10(4):1850035

10.   Saw SN, Low JYR, Ong MHH, Poh YW, Mattar CNZ, Biswas A, Yap CH. “Hyperelastic Mechanical Properties of Ex Vivo Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Placenta.” Ann Biomed Engr. 2018 Jul 1;46(7):1066-77

11.   Saw SN, Low JYR, Mattar CNZ, Biswas A, Chen L, Yap CH. “Motorizing and Optimizing Ultrasound Strain Elastography for Detecting Intrauterine Growth Restriction Pregnancies.” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 2018 Mar 1;44(3):532-43


1.       Li Z, Zhu J, Foo KCC, Yap CH. “A Novel and Robust Dual-Membrane Dielectric Elastomer Actuator for Large Volume Fluid Pumping via Snap-through”. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2017 Nov 20;111(21):212901.

2.       Li Z, Wang Y, Foo KCC, Godaba H, Zhu J, Yap CH. “The Mechanism for Large-Volume Fluid Pumping via Reversible Snap-Through of Dielectric Elastomer.” J Appl Phys.  2017 Aug 28;122(8):084503

3.       Wiputra H, Lim GL, Chu KC, R Nivetha, Soomar SM, Biswas A, Mattar CNZ, Leo HL, Yap CH. “Peristaltic-Like Motion of the Human Fetal Right Ventricle and its Effects on Fluid Dynamics and Energy Dynamics.” Ann Biomed Engr.  2017 Oct 1;45(10):2335-47.

4.       Ho S, Tan GXY, Foo TJ, Phan-Thien N, Yap CH. “Organ Dynamics and Fluid Dynamics of the HH25 Chick Embryonic Cardiac Ventricle as Revealed by a Novel 4D High-Frequency Ultrasound Imaging Technique and Computational Flow Simulations.” Ann Biomed Engr.  2017 Oct 1;45(10):2309-23.

5.       Vasudevan V, Low AJJ, Annamalai SP, Sampath S, Poh KK, Totman T, Mazlan M, Croft G, Richards AM, de Kleihn DPV, Chin CL, Yap CH. “Flow Dynamics and Energy Efficiency of Flow in the Left Ventricle during Myocardial Infarction.” Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2017 Oct 1;16(5):1503-17.

6.       Ho S, Banerjee H, Foo YY, Godaba H, Aye WMM, Zhu J, Yap CH. “Experimental Characterization of a Dielectric Elastomer Fluid pump and Optimizing Performance via Composite Materials.” J Intell Mater Syst Struct. 2017 Dec;28(20):3054-65.

7.       Jamil M, Ahmad O, Poh KK, Yap CH. “Feasibility of Ultrasound-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics as a Mitral Valve Regurgitation Quantification Technique, Comparison with 2D PISA and 3D PISA.” Ultrasound Med. Biol.  2017 Jul 31;43(7):1314-30.

8.       Saw SN, Chia DAK, Biswas A, Mattar CNZ, Yap CH. “Characterization of the In Vivo Shear Stress Environment of Human Fetus Umbilical Arteries and Veins.” Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2017 Feb;16(1):197-211

9.       Ko GZY, Mehta K, Jamil M, Yap CH, Chen NG. “A method to study the hemodynamics of chicken embryo's aortic arches using optical coherence tomography.” J Biophotonics.  2017 Mar 1;10(3):353-9.

10.   Yap CH, Lai CQ, Loh IGH, Ong TZR. “Non-Linear Flow Rate Response to Pumping Frequency and Reduced Hemolysis in the Drastically Under-Occluded Pulsatile Roller Pump.” Artif Organs. 2017; 41 (2), 178-185


1.       Park DW, Sebastiani A, Yap CH, Simon MA, Kim K. “Quantification of Coupled Stiffness and Fiber Orientation Remodeling in Hypertensive Rat Right-ventricular Myocardium Using 3D Ultrasound Speckle Tracking with Biaxial Testing.” Plos One. 2016 Oct 25;11(10):e0165320

2.       Wiputra H, Lai CQ, Lim GL, Heng JJW, Guo L, Soomar SM, Leo HL, Biswas A, Mattar CNZ, Yap CH. “Fluid Mechanics of Human Fetal Right Ventricles from Image-Based Computational Fluid dynamics Using 3D Clinical Ultrasound Scans.” Am J Physiol Heart and Circ Physiol. 2016 Dec 1;311(6):H1498-508.

3.       Lai CQ, Chia JWS, Chua WWC, Yap CH. “Near-Superhydrophobic Surface Reduces Hemolysis of Blood Flow in Tubes.” RSC Advances. 2016; 6(67):62451-9

4.       Jamil M, Tan GXY, Huq M, Kang H, Lee ZR, Tang PH, Hu XH, Yap CH. “Changes to the Geometry and Fluid Mechanics of the Carotid Sihpon in the Pediatric Moyamoya Disease.”  Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2016; 19(16):1760-71

5.       Wiputra H, Lim GL, Chia DAK, Mattar CNZ, Biswas A, Yap CH. “Methods for Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Human Fetal Cardiac Chambers Based on Patient-Specific 4D Ultrasound Scans.” JBSE. 2016; 11(2): 15-00608

6.       Lau JSF, Saw SN, Buist ML, Biswas A, Mattar CNZ, Yap CH. “Mechanical Testing and Non-Linear Viscoelastic Modelling of Human Placenta in Normal and Growth Restriction Pregnancies.” J Biomech.  2016; 49 (2): 173-184.

7.       Lai CQ, Lim GL, Jamil M, Mattar CNZ, Biswas A, Yap CH. “Fluid Mechanics of Blood Flow in Human Fetal Left Ventricles based on Patient-Specific 4D Ultrasound Scans.” Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2016; 15(5):1159-72.


1.       Tan GXY, Jamil M, Tee NGZ, Zhong L, Yap CH. “3D Reconstruction of Chick Embryo Vascular Geometry Using Non-Invasive High-Frequency Ultrasound for Computational Fluid Dynamics.” Ann Biomed Engr. 2015; 43(11): 2780-2793.

2.       Yap CH, Park D, Dutta D, Simon M, Kim K. “Methods for Using 3D Ultrasound Speckle Tracking in Biaxial Mechanical Testing of Biological Tissue Samples.” Ultrasound in medicine & biology, 2015, 41 (4), 1029-1042.


1.       Yap CH, Liu X, Pekkan K. “Characterization of the Vessel Geometry, Flow Mechanics and Wall Shear Stresses in the Great Arteries of Wildtype Prenatal Mouse.” Plos One, 2014, 27;9(1):e86878


1.       Yap CH, Thiele K, Wei Q, Santhanakrishnan A, Khiabani R, Cardinale M, Salgo I, Yoganathan AP. “Novel Method of Measuring Valvular Regurgitation Using Three-Dimensional Non-Linear Curve Fitting of Doppler Signals Within the Flow Convergence Zone.” IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2013 Apr; 60(7):1295-1311.

2.       Saikrishnan N, Yap CH, Stamatios L, Kimar G, Yoganathan AP. “Revisiting the Gorlin equation for aortic stenosis – is it correctly used in clinical practice?” Int J Cardiol. 2013 Oct 3;168(3):2881-3

3.       Yap CH, Saikrishnan N, Tamilselvan G, Vasilyev N, Yoganathan AP. “The Congenital Bicuspid Aortic Valve Can Experience High Frequency Unsteady Shear Stresses on Its Leaflet Surface”, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012 Sept;303(6):H721-H731.

4.       Saikrishnan N, Yap CH, Milligan NC, Vasilyev NV, Yoganathan AP. “In Vitro Characterization of Bicuspid Aortic Valve Hemodynamics Using Particle Image Velocimetry.” Ann Biomed Eng. 2012 Aug;40(8):1760-75

5.       Balachandran K, Hussain S, Yap CH, Padala M, Chester AH, Yoganathan AP. “Elevated Cyclic Stretch and Serotonin Result in Altered Aortic Valve Remodeling via a Mechanosensitive 5-HT(2A) Receptor-Dependent Pathway.” Cardiovasc Pathol. 2012 May-Jun;21(3):206-13

6.       Thayer P, Balachandran K, Rathan S, Arjunon S, Yap CH, Jo H, Yoganathan AP. The Effect of Combined Cyclic Stretch and Pressure on the Aortic Valve Interstitial Cell Phenotype. Ann Biomed Eng. 2011 June; 39(6):1654-67.

7.       Weiler M, Yap CH, Balachandran K, Padala M, Yoganathan AP. “Regional Variation of Dynamic Deformation Characteristics of Native Aortic Valve Leaflets.” J Biomech. 2011 May 17; 44(8):1459-65.

8.       Spinner EM, Buice D, Yap CH, Yoganathan AP. “The Effects of a Three-Dimensional, Saddle-Shaped Annulus on Anterior and Posterior Leaflet Stretch and Regurgitation of the Tricuspid Valve. Ann Biomed Eng. 2012 May;40(5):996-1005.

9.       Yap CH, Tamiselvan G, Saikrishnan N, Yoganathan AP. “Experimental Measurement of Dynamic Fluid Shear Stress on the Aortic Surface of the Aortic Valve Leaflet.” Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 Jan;11(1-2)171-82.

10.   Yap CH, Saikrishnan N, Yoganathan AP. “Experimental Measurement of Dynamic Fluid Shear Stress on the Ventricular Surface of the Aortic Valve Leaflet.” Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 Jan;11(1-2):231-44.

11.   Yap CH, Tamiselvan G, Saikrishnan N, Yoganathan AP. “Experimental Technique of Measuring Dynamic Fluid Shear Stress on the Aortic Surface of the Aortic Valve Leaflet.” J Biomech Eng. 2011 Jun; 133(6):061007

12.   Yap CH, Kim HS, Balachandran K, Weiler M, Haj-Ali R, Yoganathan A.P. “Dynamic Deformation Characteristics of Porcine Aortic Valve Leaflets under Normal and Hypertensive Conditions”, Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol.  2010 Feb;298(2):H395-405.

13.   Yap CH, Dasi LP, Yoganathan AP. “Dynamic Hemodynamic Energy Loss in Normal and Stenosed Aortic Valves”, J Biomech Eng. 2010 Feb;132(2):021005

Book Chapters:

1.       Yoganathan AP, Yap CH. “Fluid Dynamics of Prosthetic Valves”, in Practice of Clinical Echocardiography, 4th edition, 2012, Otto C.M. (Ed), Saunders Elsevier.

2.       Yap CH, Spinner EM, Padala SM, Yoganathan AP. “Heart Valve Dynamics”, in Biomedical Engineering Handbook, 4th Edition, 2013, Bronzino J.D. and  Peterson D.R. (Eds.)., CRC Press.